Volume-54 | Issue-3(July-September)| Year 2022

Mechanical weed management technology to manage inter- and intra-row weeds in agroecosystems - A review
Satya Prakash Kumar, V.K. Tewari, C.R. Mehta, C.R. Chethan, Abhilash Chandel, C.M. Pareek and Brajesh Nare

KEYWORDS:

Automation, Crops, Inter- and intra-row weeder, Mechanical weed management, Microcontroller, Sensors

Abstract:

Traditional manual weed management is one of the tedious and costly operations in the complete cycle of crop production, reasons being high labor costs, time and tedium. The herbicide use contributes to environmental pollution in addition to other disadvantages of concern. The increasing demand for toxicant free food has become a challenge for weed control. Hence, the mechanical weeding is gaining importance. Automation in agriculture has also improved the mechanization input in weed management. The rapid entry of sensors, microcontroller and computing technologies in the field has formed a foundation of agricultural autonomous guidance systems. An automated system is time effective for field operations, avoids huge labor requirement and health drudgery issues to provide an efficient farm operation. Generally manual tools such as khurpi (hand operated small hoe), grubber, spade, wheel hoe, push pull type of weeder are used by farmers for the removal of inter- and intra-row weeds with higher weeding efficiency in the range of 72 to 99% but field capacity is very low in the range of 0.001 to 0.033 ha/h. This review deliberates on the latest work being done on mechanical weed management such as tractor operated finger weeder, torsion weeder, ECO weeder, flame weeder, harrow and sensor-based technologies for management of inter- and intra-row weeds in crops with wider rows.

Email

satyaprakashkumar27@gmail.com

Address

ICAR - Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462038, India
Effect of tillage and weed management on weed dynamics and yield of rice in rice-wheat-greengram cropping system in vertisols of central India
Nisha Sapre, M.L. Kewat, A.R. Sharma and Priya Singh

KEYWORDS:

Bispyribac-sodium, Chlorimuron + metsulfuron-methyl, Conventional tillage, Economics, Productivity, Weed management, Rice, Zero tillage

Abstract:

A field experiment on effect of tillage and weed management on weed dynamics and yield of rice in rice-wheat-greengram cropping system in vertisols of central India was conducted during Kharif 2014 to 2015 at ICAR-DWR, Jabalpur. The experiment consisted of total 15 treatments. A split plot design having three replications was used with five tillage practices in main plots and three weed control treatments in subplots. The maximum weed density and biomass were found when zero tillage was done in rice in the presence of Sesbania (S) and greengram residues (ZT+S+GG); under zero tillage in rice in the presence of Sesbania and green gram residues-zero tillage in wheat in the presence of rice residues- zero tillage in greengram in the presence of wheat residues system [ZT+S+GG(R)-ZT+RR(W)-ZT+WR(GG)] followed by zero tillage done in rice in the presence of only Sesbania residues (ZT+S) under ZT+S(R)-ZT(W)-ZT(GG) system. Whereas the minimum was recorded when conventional tillage was done in transplanted rice under CT(TPR)-CT(W)-fallow system which also recorded higher grain and straw yields as well as gross monetary returns but had higher cost of cultivation followed by (ZT+S) under ZT+S(R)-ZT(W)-ZT(GG) system. This system also has the maximum net monetary returns and B:C along with the reduced cost of cultivation. Rotational application of chlorimuron + metsulfuron-methyl 4 g /ha during previous year and post-emergence application (PoE) of bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha during next year in rice as well as regular application of bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha PoE in rice during both the years gave similar weed control and recorded the higher crop yield, net monetary returns and B:C. Among different treatment combinations, rotational application of chlorimuron + metsulfuron-methyl 4 g/ha PoE during previous year and bispyribac-sodium 25 g/ha PoE during next year after conventional tillage in transplanted rice under CT(TPR)-CT(W)-fallow system and ZT+S in rice under ZT+S(R)-ZT(W)-ZT(GG) system has resulted lower weed density and biomass along with higher weed control efficiency, higher grain and straw yields and economic returns than other combinations.

Email

toughysingh@gmail.com

Address

ICAR-PC Unit (Sesame & Niger), JNKVV, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, 482004, India
Integration effect of drip irrigation and mulching on weeds and spring maize productivity
Ritu Mohanpuria, Simerjeet Kaur, Tarundeep Kaur, K.B. Singh, A.S. Brar and J.S. Deol

KEYWORDS:

Drip irrigation, Irrigation methods, Maize, Mulches, Weed control efficiency, Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out at Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during spring season of 2020 and 2021. The experimental design was split-plot with three replications. The main plots included the combination of two methods of drip irrigation, viz. surface drip irrigation (SD) and sub-surface drip irrigation (SSD) and three mulch treatments, viz. plastic mulch (PM), straw mulch 6 t/ha (SM) and no mulch (NM) along with furrow irrigation (FI) as a control treatment. The sub-plots consisted of four weed control treatments, viz. pre-emergence application (PE) of atrazine 1000 g/ha, hand weeding twice at 30 and 60 days after seeding (DAS), weed free and weedy check. The dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus, Oenothera laciniata, Chenopodium album, Coronopus didymus, Rumex dentatus, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium. The maize emergence was 6 days earlier under plastic mulch than the crop under straw mulch. The SD-PM, SD-SM, SSD-PM, SSD-SM and SSD-NM resulted in maximum maize plant height when compared to FI. SD-PM, SD-SM, SSD-PM and SSD-SM treatments recorded significantly lower total weed density and biomass at 30 DAS than the atrazine treated FI treatment. Maximum weed control efficiency of 88.89% was recorded under integration of drip irrigation with plastic mulch. Integration of drip irrigation and mulches resulted in significantly increased maize grain yield as compared to FI. Crop raised under SD-SM treatment resulted in 20.62% higher grain yield than FI. The integration of drip irrigation with mulching resulted in effective weed management and higher maize grain yield than furrow irrigation method.

Email

simer@pau.edu

Address

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
Impact of organic methods of nutrient and weed management on weeds nutrient uptake and maize productivity in sandy loam soils of Rajasthan, India
L.K. Jain, Ishwar Singh, Ramawtar, R.K. Sharma and P.L. Maliwal

KEYWORDS:

Beejamurt, Farm yard manure, Jeevamurt, Maize, Organic cultivation, Stale seed bed, Straw mulch, Vermicompost, Weed management

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted during rainy (Kharif) season 2019 and 2020 at Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Sumerpur, Rajasthan to study the influence of organic methods of nutrient and weed management on weeds growth and nutrient uptake and maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. The experiment comprised of six weed management and five nutrient management treatments arranged in split-plot design with three replications. The stale seedbed + hoeing with power weeder at 20 days after seeding (DAS) + hoeing once at 40 DAS and stale seedbed + hoeing once at 20 DAS + application of 5 t/ha of straw mulch applied at 30 DAS recorded significantly lowest mean weed biomass at 30 DAS and at 50 DAS, respectively. They were found on par with weed free check at harvest in respect of recording mean minimum weed biomass and nutrient uptake by different categories of weeds, higher maize and nutrient uptake by maize on pooled basis. Amongst nutrient management treatments, mean minimum weed biomass and nutrient uptake, significantly higher maize yield, protein content, nutrient content and uptake by the maize was recorded with 75% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) using vermicompost (75% as basal + 25% as top dress at 30 DAS) + seed treatment with beejamurt + spray of 500 l/ha of jeevamurt twice (at sowing and 30 DAS). The similar trend was recorded in terms of yield and economics of maize. Next best was 75% RDN through vermicompost as basal + seed treatment with beejamurt + spray of 500 l/ha jeevamurt twice (at sowing and 30 DAS). The organic nutrient management treatments significantly increased the nutrient content in maize grain and stover, while weed management treatments have no significant effect.

Email

jainlokesh74@gmail.com, iswsjbp@gmail.com

Address

College of Agriculture, Sumerpur, Pali, Rajasthan 306902 India
Bio-efficacy of nicosulfuron against mixed weed flora in maize and its residual effect on succeeding crops
V. Pratap Singh, Arunima Paliwal, Tej Pratap, S.P. Singh, Ajay Kumar and Radhey Shyam

KEYWORDS:

Atrazine, Maize, Nicosulfuron, Tembotrione, Weed management 

Abstract:

A field study was conducted during Spring and rainy (Kharif) season of 2017 at N.E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India to evaluate the effective dose of nicosulfuron for weed control in maize while assessing its effect on growth and yield of maize along with its residual effect on succeeding pea and cowpea fodder. Eight treatments were tested which include:  post-emergence application (PoE) of nicosulfuron  at different doses (30, 36, 42 and 50 g/ha), tembotrione 120 g/ha PoE, pre-emergence application (PE) of atrazine 1000 g/ha, hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 days after seeding (DAS) and weedy check. The weed community during both the seasons in the experimental area consisted of, grassy weeds: Phalaris minor, Eleusine indica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colona and Panicum maximum, broad-leaved weeds (BLW): Trianthema monogyna, Chenopodium album, Phyllanthus niruri, Parthenium hysterophorus and Mallugo stricta and a sedge Cyperus rotundus. Nicosulfuron at 50 g/ha resulted in 50-100% weed control, depending on the weed species. Nicosulfuron at 50 and 42 g/ha were equally effective in increasing grain yield of maize when compared with tembotrione and was found superior over atrazine during both the season. No phytotoxic symptoms on maize and no residual effect on succeeding pea and cowpea fodder crop were observed, at any doses of nicosulfuron. Hence, nicosulfuron at 42 g/ha PoE may be safely used for effective weed management and improved yield of maize.

Email

arunima.28@rediffmail.com

Address

College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263145, India
The moisture regimes and herbicides efficacy in improving productivity and profitability of maize-wheat cropping system
Sandeep Rawal, A.S. Dhindwal, Ashok Yadav, Aradhna Bali and Pardeep Sagwal

KEYWORDS:

Clodinafop + carfentrazone, maize-wheat cropping system, moisture-weed interaction, Pinoxaden + metsulfuron, Tembotrione, Weed management

Abstract:

Two factorial field experiments were conducted in Haryana in split plot arrangement during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to evaluate moisture regimes and weed control treatments efficacy to managing weeds and improve productivity and profitability in maize-wheat cropping system. Four moisture regimes in main plots were based on cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) at 80-, 120-, 160- and 200-mm CPE interval in maize and at 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm CPE interval in wheat. Weed management treatments included pre-emergence application (PE) of pendimethalin at 1000 g/ha, atrazine at 750 g/ha PE, post-emergence application (PoE) of tembotrione at 120 g/ha in maize and pendimethalin at 1500 g/ha PE, clodinafop + carfentrazone at 60 +20 g/ha PoE and pinoxaden + metsulfuron at 50 + 4 g/ha PoE in wheat, weed free and weedy check. Significantly higher system yield (10.02 and 10.21 Mg/ha) during both years (2013-14 and 2014-15) were recorded at 80 mm CPE interval in maize and CRI+75 mm CPE interval in wheat. The atrazine PE and tembotrione PoE in maize and herbicide mixture viz. clodinafop+ carfentrazone and pinoxaden + metsulfuron PoE in wheat were the most effective weed management treatments. 

Email

pardeepsagwal@gmail.com

Address

Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana 125004, India
Evaluation of cultural practices for weed management in maize-based cropping system in Palam valley, Himachal Pradesh
Gaytri Hetta, S.S. Rana, Rahul Sharma and G.D. Sharma

KEYWORDS:

Cropping systems, Garlic, Maize, Non-chemical, Pea, Weeds, Weed management

Abstract:

A study was carried out during 2017-19 at Palampur in an ongoing experiment under All India Coordinated Research Project on Weed Management (AICRP-WM). Ten weed control treatments based on hoeing, stale seed bed + hoeing, raised stale seed bed (RSSB) + hoeing, mulch, stale seed bed + mulch, raised stale seed bed (RSSB) + mulch, intercropping, crop rotation, intensive cropping and herbicide check (pendimethalin in pea/garlic and atrazine in maize) were tested during Rabi 2017-18 to Kharif 2019. There were 22 weed species in garlic and 19 weed species in maize. Phalaris minor, Daucus carota and Anagallis arvensis were the major weeds, constituting 17.0, 14.0 and 12.0 per cent, respectively of the total weed flora in garlic during 2017-18. Commelina benghalensis L., Galinsoga parviflora and Ageratum sp. were the major weeds constituting 21.0, 17.0 and 11.0 per cent, respectively of the total weed flora in maize. Maximum bulb yield (3472 kg/ha) was recorded with RSSB + hoeing and was statistically at par with herbicide check and SSB + hoeing. In maize, the highest cob yield was recorded in RSSB + mulch followed by mulch. Maize equivalent yield was higher in intercropping followed by intensive cropping and RSSB + mulch treatments. In 2019, 22 and 13 weed species occurred in pea and maize, respectively. The maximum pea pod yield was with intensive cropping followed by herbicide check in Rabi 2018-19. Herbicide check gave highest green cob yield (10323 kg/ha) of maize and was statistically equivalent to RSSB + hoeing (9208 kg/ha green cobs yield). Higher productivity (maize equivalent yield of 11420 kg/ha) was realized with the herbicide check which was at par with RSSB + hoeing (10160 kg/ha). The B:C followed the trend of intensive cropping > intercropping > herbicide check > RSSB + hoeing > RSSB + mulch. 

Email

ranassdee@gmail.com, iswsjbp@gmail.com

Address

Department of Agronomy, CSK HPKV Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 176062, India
Performance and economical evaluation of two row self-propelled narrow crop rotary weeder for managing weeds in mustard crop
Gatkal Narayan Raosaheb, Vijaya Rani, Rahul pannu, Naresh and Mukesh Jain

KEYWORDS:

Economical weeding, Mechanical weeding, Mustard, Plant damage, Rotary weeder, Weed management, Weeding efficiency

Abstract:

The conventional manual weed management is one of the labour intensive and expensive operation in crop production as it involves low efficiency, time consuming, human drudgery and higher cost of operation. The use of self-propelled rotary weeder for mechanical weeding reduces the drudgery and ensures a comfortable posture of operator or farmer during weeding operation. Hence, a self-propelled narrow crop rotary weeder was developed by department of Farm Machinery & Power Engineering, COAE&T, CCS HAU, Hisar during the winter (Rabi) season of 2016 and was evaluated for its performance in mustard crop having row to row spacing of 45 cm. Three forward speeds (1.6, 1.8 and 2 km/h), two blade lengths (180 and 195 mm) and three speeds of rotor (330, 360 and 390 rpm) were selected for its evaluation and results were compared with manual hand weeding using Kasola (tool smaller than spadi in size). The effective field capacity of 0.09 ha/h, field efficiency of 67.98%, weeding efficiency of 80.12% and plant damage of 2.9% were observed at the best combination of operational variables i.e. rotor speed of 360 rpm, blade length of 180 mm and forward speed of 1.6 km/h. The labour requirement with rotary weeder was reduced to 11.11 man-h/ha when compared to 160 man-h/ha for manual hand weeding. Thus, rotary weeder saved 93% of labour and 75.45% of cost of operation in comparison to manual hand weeding using Kasola in mustard crop. 

Email

narayan96378@gmail.com, iswsjbp@gmail.com

Address

Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, Dr. Annasaheb shinde College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, MPKV, Rahuri, Maharashtra 713422, India
Efficacy of sequential application of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for weed management in sesame
Neeshu Joshi, Shourabh Joshi, J.K. Sharma, H.S. Shekhawat and Uma Nath Shukla

KEYWORDS:

Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, Quizalofop-p-methyl, Pendimethalin, Sesame, Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during rainy (Kharif) seasons of 2019 and 2020 to assess the efficacy of the sequential application of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for managing complex weed flora in line sown sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) at Agriculture Research Sub-Station, Sumerpur, Pali. There were nine weed control treatments replicated thrice in a randomized complete block design. Hand weeding twice recorded the highest values of growth parameters and seed yield (1.25 t/ha) which was at par with pre-emergence application (PE) of pendimethalin 750 g/ha followed by (fb) quizalofop-p-ethyl 40 g/ha at 20 days after seeding (DAS). The uncontrolled weeds in weedy check caused 50% sesame seed yield reduction. The post-emergence application (PoE) of quizalofop-p-ethyl 40 g/ha at 20 DAS and sequential application of pre-emergence application (PE) of pendimethalin 750 g/ha PE followed by (fb) quizalofop-p-ethyl 40 g/ha at 20 DAS recorded the highest weed control efficiency, sesame seed yield, net return and benefit cost ratio and were observed to be superior than the recommended practice of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha PE fb hand weeding at 25 DAS.

Email

neeshu.joshi@gmail.com, iswsjbp@gmail.com

Address

Agriculture Research Sub-Station, Sumerpur, Pali, Rajasthan 306902, India
Synergistic integration of crop residue mulch and cultural practices with herbicides for managing weed complex in turmeric in North-Western India
Dharam Bir Yadav, Lila Bora, Narender Singh, Anil Duhan, Ashok Yadav and S.S. Punia

KEYWORDS:

Herbicides, Herbicide residues, Integrated weed management, Phyto-toxicity, Straw mulching, Turmeric 

Abstract:

Turmeric being a wide spaced and long duration crop, weeds pose a serious problem due to its delayed emergence and slow initial growth which provide ideal environment for weeds to grow. This warrants for synergistic integration of residue mulch, cultural practices, and herbicides for effective weed management. Two field experiments were conducted during 2012-13 - 2013-14 and 2014-15 - 2015-16 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Karnal to evaluate different approaches involving integration of crop residue mulch and cultural practices with herbicides for effective and economical weed management in turmeric. The uncontrolled weeds caused 42-66% turmeric yield loss. Based on four years studies, it may be concluded that pre-emergence (PE) application of metribuzin 700 g/ha or pendimethalin 1000 g/ha or atrazine 750 g/ha integrated with rice straw mulching (10 t/ha) after herbicide application at 3 days after sowing (DAS) and hand weeding at 50 or 75 DAS provided effective control (86-100%) of complex weed flora in turmeric with improved rhizome yield (14.29 to18.60 t/ha), which was comparable to weed free, better economic returns without phyto-toxicity on the crop and detectable herbicidal residues in the turmeric rhizomes and soil at harvest. Integration of 2-hoeing with metribuzin 700 g/ha PE or pendimethalin 1000 g/ha PE were the two other viable options of integrated weed management (IWM) strategy. Among post-emergence (PoE) herbicides, fenoxaprop 67 g/ha 45 DAS, was safe to turmeric while metsulfuron 4 g/ha PoE was toxic. Glyphosate 0.3% PoE at 25 DAS could also be integrated with hoeing twice at 45 and 75 DAS for effective weed management in turmeric. Use of rice straw in IWM strategies in turmeric will also help in reducing herbicide dose, crop residue management without burning, conservation of soil moisture and other natural resources which will helps in long term sustainable and economical production system.

Email

dbyadav@gmail.com

Address

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana 125004, India
Effect of planting geometry and potato seed tuber size on weeds and potato tuber yield
Vivek Kumar and C.S. Aulakh

KEYWORDS:

Planting geometry, Potato, Seed tuber size, Tuber yield, Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during winter (Rabi) seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16 at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India to study the effect of potato planting geometry (50 × 15 cm, 65 × 11.5 cm, 70 × 10.7 cm and 75 × 10 cm) and seed tuber size (25-35 mm, 35-45 mm, 45-55 mm) on weed density and biomass, and tuber yield of potato. The potato canopy cover was higher and the weed density and biomass were lower with closer planting geometry of 50 × 15 cm followed by 65 × 11.5 cm. The growth attributes (number of stems/plant and leaf area index), tuber number and tuber yield were not significantly influenced by varying planting geometry. Potato seed tuber size exerted a significant effect on weed infestation resulting in significantly lower weed density and biomass with large sized seed tubers followed by medium sized seed tubers as compared to small sized seed tubers. Growth attributes, tuber number and tuber yield of potato were also significantly higher with large sized seed tubers followed by medium sized tubers compared to small sized tubers. Thus, the potato planting geometry of 50 × 15 cm for manual planting by small and marginal farmers and 65 × 15 cm for mechanized potato production along with medium sized seed tubers are the viable options for effective weed management and optimal potato tuber yield.

Email

vivek33@pau.edu

Address

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, India
Effect of irrigation levels and weed management practices on weeds, water productivity and yield of cauliflower
Anil Kumar, Sidharth Baghla, Navneet Kaur, Tigangam P. Gangmei, S.S. Rana and Sandeep Manuja

KEYWORDS:

Cauliflower, Irrigation levels, Mulching, Water productivity, Weed management

Abstract:

Water shortage and weed infestation are major constraints in vegetable production. Micro-irrigation integrated with weed management practices is one way to maximize the yield and water productivity in crops. A field trial was conducted during Rabi seasons of 2018-19, 2019-20 and 2020-21 at the Water Management Farm of CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur to study the effect of irrigation levels and weed management practices on weeds, crop and water productivity in cauliflower. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three irrigation levels (0.9 PE, 0.7 PE and 0.5 PE) in main plots and four weed management practices (black polythene mulch, pre-plant incorporation (PPI) of pendimethalin 1.5 kg/ha followed by (fb) hand weeding, pendimethalin 1.5 kg/ha PPI fb straw mulching and weedy check) in sub plots. The treatments were replicated thrice. The irrigation given to crop at 0.9 PE level proved to be better in terms of yield and net returns in cauliflower. Black polythene mulch resulted in efficient weed control and improving crop developmental parameters and yield attributes. There was progressive increase in weed density and biomass with increase in irrigation level, with least in lower irrigation level of 0.5PE. It is concluded that higher crop productivity and returns in cauliflower can be obtained by using black polythene mulch and irrigation applied at 0.9PE level. However, under limited water availability, the best alternative will be applying irrigation at 0.7 PE level and using black polythene mulch. 

Email

kaurn281295@gmail.com

Address

Department of Agronomy, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, (176062) H.P. India
Occurrence and distribution of Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) Voss., an invasive weed in the uplands of Kerala
Teresa Alex and Meera V. Menon

KEYWORDS:

Alternanthera bettzickiana, Distribution, Dominance, Invasive weed, Survey

Abstract:

A survey was conducted in the uplands (or garden lands) along roadsides, uncultivated areas and in wastelands in seven agro-ecological units (AEUs) representing the central zone of Kerala during 2020 and 2021 to assess the occurrence and invasiveness of Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) Voss. The weed exhibited highest summed dominance ratio and importance value index in all but one of the AEUs. Diversity indices like Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson’s diversity index and Evenness index were lower for a particular region (AEU 9), showing the dominance of this weed species there. The density of A. bettzickiana was positively correlated with nitrogen content, and dry matter production was influenced by both organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soil. The study concluded that A. bettzickiana is gaining the status of problematic weed in the central parts of Kerala, dominating mostly in uncultivated areas with occational occurrence observed in cropped lands also. Hence, efforts to prevent its spread need to be taken up by concerned authorities.

Email

teresaalex93@gmail.com

Address

College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala 680656, India
Nitrogen and weed management effects on weeds and yield of barley in Kandahar, Afghanistan
Karamatullah Fazil, T.K. Das, C.P. Nath, R. Nazir and M. Samim

KEYWORDS:

Barley, Clodinafop-propargyl, Integrated weed management, Metsulfuron-methyl, Nitrogen

Abstract:

Growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are highly influenced by nutrients and weed management. Nitrogen (N) is the most crucial nutrient to which barley crop responds readily. Efficient management of N and weeds can provide higher yield, better quality, and higher income to the farmers. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in a split-plot design with three replications during winter season of 2019-20 in the Afghanistan National Agricultural Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar, Afghanistan to evaluate the effect of weed and N management on weeds growth and barley productivity. There were three weed management options in main plots, such as weedy check, herbicide use alone [post-emergence application (PoE) of clodinafop-propargyl 60 g/ha + metsulfuron-methyl 4 g/ha (tank-mix) at 30 days after sowing (DAS)], and integrated weed management (IWM) involving stale seed bed 15 days before sowing + wheat crop residue (2.5 t/ha) retention + clodinafop-propargyl + metsulfuron-methyl (tank-mix) PoE with half of the recommended dose at 30 DAS]. Four N levels (~0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha, i.e., N0, N40, N80 and N120) were included as sub-plot treatments. The IWM led to significantly lower density and biomass of weeds at 40 and 70 DAS and significantly increased weed control efficiency (WCE) and weed control index (WCI). Clodinafop-propargyl (60 g/ha) + metsulfuron-methyl (4 g/ha) (tank-mix) PoE also resulted in significantly lower density and biomass of weeds and higher WCE and WCI than weedy check at all stages. IWM being at par with clodinafop-propargyl + metsulfuron-methyl (tank-mix) PoE led to higher growth (crop height, dry weight, leaf area index and growth rate) and yield of barley. On the contrary, the effect of nitrogen levels was not significant on the weed density and biomass reduction. N120 and N80 were comparable with respect to growth, yield attributes and yield of barley. Thus, IWM with 80 kg N/ha may be recommended for better weed management and higher barley yield and income in Kandahar, Afghanistan. 

Email

tkdas64@gmail.com

Address

Afghanistan National Agricultural Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar, Afghanistan
Effect of different pre- and post-emergence herbicides for weed management in chickpea
Anamika Nepali, Arvind Verma, J.K. Singh, Deepa Verma and Pooja

KEYWORDS:

Chickpea, Economics, Herbicides, Pendimethalin, Weed management

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the winter (Rabi) season 2017-18 at Instructional Agronomy Farm of Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur. The experiment consisted of twelve weed management treatments which were replicated thrice in Randomize Block Design. Chickpea (cv. Pratap Chana-1) was used as a test crop. The hand weeding twice 30 and 60 days after seeding (DAS) followed by pre-emergence application (PE) of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha or pendimethalin 750 g/ha have significantly reduced total weed density and biomass and attained the highest chickpea seed yield. The net return and B:C ratio was significantly higher with pendimethalin 1000 g/ha PE and pendimethalin 750 g/ha PE due to lesser cost of herbicides usage compared to hand weeding

Email

jksinghbhu3@gmail.com

Address

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajsthan-313 001, India
Effect of herbicides on complex weed flora and yield of summer greengram
Pramod Kumar, V.J. Patel, D.D. Chaudhari and B.D. Patel

KEYWORDS:

Greengram, Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen, Pendimethalin + imazethapyr, Weed management

Abstract:

To study the effect of a few herbicides on weed dynamics and yield of summer greengram (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted on loamy sand soil during summer season of 2020. Digitaria sanguinalis, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica and Dactyloctenium aegyptium among monocot and Digera arvensis, Portulaca oleracea, Trianthema monogyna and Phyllanthus niruri, the dicot weeds were dominant in experimental field. The pre-emergence application (PE) of either pendimethalin 750 g/ha or pendimethalin + imazethapyr (pre-mix) 750 g/ha or oxyfluorfen 117.5 g/ha PE or inter-cultivation twice and hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 days after seeding (DAS) significantly reduced the density and biomass of monocot and dicot weeds in summer greengram. These treatments recorded higher greengram growth, yield attributes, viz. plant height plant dry biomass, nodule dry weight, number of pods/plant, seed yield and benefit cost ratio (B:C).

Email

avjpatel28@aau.in

Address

B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat 388110, India
Herbicidal combinations for managing weeds and improving crop productivity in summer blackgram
Vishal Singh, Naushad Khan, Utkarsh Singh and Raghvendra Singh

KEYWORDS:

Blackgram, Imazethapyr, Pendimethalin, Weed management, Weed control efficiency 

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at the Students Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, India during summer season of 2018 to find out the most effective pre- and post-emergent herbicide combination for effective management of weeds in blackgram. Experiments consisted of ten treatments. The lowest weed density and biomass, weed index and highest weed control efficiency and blackgram yield as well as B:C ratio was observed with pre-emergence application (PE) of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha followed by  post-emergence application (PoE) of imazethapyr 50 g/ha which was effective and economical in managing weeds in blackgram

Email

smillingbudha1@gmail.com

Address

Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh 224229, India
Integrated weed management effect on yield and economics of cowpea
C.P. Amaya and P. Gayathri Karthikeyan

KEYWORDS:

Cowpea, Hand weeding, Imazethapyr, Mulching, Pendimethalin

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at instructional farm II of College of Agriculture, Padannakkad, Kerala, India during the Rabi 2020 to evaluate the efficacy and identify economic weed management treatment for managing weeds in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. The weed parameters were significantly influenced by the weed management practices. The weed density and biomass and higher weed control efficiency during different periods of crop growth were consistently lower with pre-emergence application (PE) of pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha + mulching 7t/ha which indicated that pre-emergence herbicide application could effectively manage the weeds emerging early in the season and the later emerged weeds could be successfully controlled by mulching. It was as effective as two hand weeding done 15 and 30 days after seeding (DAS). The effective management of weeds by it resulted in higher yield and B:C ratio. 

Email

amayacp97@gmail.com

Address

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Padannakkad, Kasaragod, Kerala 671314, India
Effect of herbicide mixtures on weeds and yield of summer groundnut
T.G. Lakshmidevi, V.J. Patel, B.D. Patel and D.D. Chaudhari

KEYWORDS:

Groundnut, Fluazifop-p-butyl + fomesafen, Herbicide, Pendimethalin + oxyfluorfen, Weed management

Abstract:

Field experiment was carried during summer 2020 at Agronomy farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat on loamy sand soil to study the effect of herbicide mixtures on weeds and yield of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with twelve treatments, replicated four times. Weed density decreased significantly with pre-emergence application (PE) of  pendimethalin + oxyfluorfen (tank mix) 900 + 120 g/ha and intercultivation (IC) followed by (fb) hand weeding (HW) at 20 and 50 days after seeding (DAS), as compared to other treatments, which resulted in significant increase in growth and yield attributes viz., periodical plant height (cm), plant dry biomass (g/plant), nodule dry weight (mg/plant), number of pods/ plant, pod yield (kg/ha), haulm yield (kg/ha), seed index (g), harvest index (%) and shelling percentage (%). Maximum net returns (Rs. 125485/ha) and B:C (4.94) was achieved with  pendimethalin  + oxyfluorfen  900 + 120 g/ha PE which was closely followed by IC fb HW at 20 and 50 DAS and early post-emergence application of fluazifop-p-butyl (11.1%) + fomesafen (11.1%) SL (pre-mix) 250 g/ha.

Email

avjpatel28@aau.in

Address

B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat 388 110, India
Effect of herbicides on weed dynamics and productivity of soybean
K.K. Binjha, S. Barla and R.R. Upasani

KEYWORDS:

Productivity, Soybean, Quizalofop-ethyl, Weed control efficiency

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, during rainy (Kharif) season of 2019 to study the efficacy of herbicides on weed dynamics and productivity of soybean. The treatments comprised of: post-emergence application (PoE) of imazethapyr 75g/ha at 20 days after sowing (DAS), imazethapyr + imazamox 75 g/ha PoE 20 DAS, quizalofop-ethyl 50 g/ha PoE 20 DAS, sodium-acifluorfen + clodinafop-propargyl 125 g/ha PoE, imazethapyr + pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha PoE, hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS, weed free (hand weeding thrice at 20, 40 and 60 DAS), and weedy check. A randomized block design with three replications was used. Quizalofop-ethyl 50 g/ha PoE recorded maximum yield attributes, viz. number of pods /plant (48), number of seeds/pod (2.73), 100 seeds weight (12.46) and yield of soybean (2.15 t/ha) owing to reduced weed biomass and higher weed control efficiency (73.33%) during initial crop growth stage and realized maximum net return (Rs. 57221/ha) and B:C ratio (2.34). 

Email

sheela.barla.123@gmail.com

Address

Department of Agronomy, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi-834006, Jharkhand, India
Herbicidal impact on density of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. emerged in berseem fodder crop
Varsha Gupta, Deep Singh Sasode, Ekta Joshi, Y.K. Singh, Rahul Ojha and Kavita Bhadu

KEYWORDS:

Berseem, Cuscuta campestris, Fodder crop, Imazethapyr, Oxyfluorfen, Pendimethalin

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of RVSKVV Gwalior during Rabi 2018-19 and 2019-20 to assess the efficacy of different pre- and post- emergence herbicides to manage Cuscuta campestris Yunck.  in berseem. C. campestris, well known as a dodder, is a serious problem in berseem. Eight treatments consisting of pre-emergence application (PE) of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha, early post-emergence application (EPoE) at 10 days after sowing (DAS) of pendimethalin 1000 g/ha, oxyfluorfen 250 g/ha PE, post-emergence application (PoE) of imazethapyr 40 g/ha after first cut at 60 DAS, imazethapyr 40 g/ha PoE after last cut at 120 DAS, imazethapyr 40 g/ha PoE after first cut + 40 g/ha after last cut, Cuscuta free and control plot (no herbicide application) were laid out in RBD with three replications. Imazethapyr 40 g/ha PoE after first cut at 60 DAS was found to be very effective in controlling the C. campestris resulting 43% and 16% higher fodder and seed yield, respectively with 43.6% higher profitability. The next best was imazethapyr 40 g/ha PoE after first cut + 40 g/ha after last cut.  Pendimethalin PE and oxyfluorfen PE caused phytotoxicity to berseem due to the higher dose of both herbicides and reduced the fodder and seed yield drastically.

Email

drvarshagupta11@gmail.com

Address

Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Viswa Vidhyalaya, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh 474002, India
Effect of increased temperature and soil moisture levels on Cyperus rotundus L.
Ajit Kumar Mandal, Ga. Dheebakaran, Mahamaya Banik and C. Chinnusamy

KEYWORDS:

Climate change, Cyperus rotundus L., Elevated temperature, Soil moisture, Purple nutsedge

Abstract:

Indian agriculture would suffer from elevated temperature and drought during the second part of this century, due to climate change. Weeds respond quickly to stress and adapt to the environment faster than crops. In this context, an experiment was carried out in growth chamber during 2015-16 with an objective to evaluate the effect of increase in air temperature and variations in soil moisture on Cyperus rotundus L. (purple nutsedge). A complete randomized design with 10 treatments and three replications was used for this pot culture experiment. The C. rotundus plants were grown for three generations. The treatments comprised of three temperature levels, viz. daily ambient (control), ambient +2oC and ambient +4oC increase over the ambient and two soil moisture levels, viz. soil moisture provision at 100 per cent of evaporation (M100) and 60 per cent of evaporation (M60). The combination of treatment were imposed at all stages of growth.   C. rotundus had high acclimatization capacity and better growth   under elevated temperature up to +4oC and under sufficient moisture due to its C4 pathway, which helped the weed to utilize the moisture and temperature more efficiently even during stress and record higher growth. It is concluded that, at projected future temperature (up to +4oC), C. rotundus may become more problematic, particularly during the rainy season. 

Email

ajitmeteorology@gmail.com

Address

Department of Agrometeorology, Dr. Kalam Agricultural College, Arrabari, Kishanganj-855107, (BAU-Sabour) Bihar, India
Stimulatory effect of sesame on the germination and seedling growth of Melochia corchorifolia L.
Dhanu Unnikrishnan1 Sheeja K. Raj, P. Shalini Pillai, M. Ameena, D. Jacob and Atul Jayapal

KEYWORDS:

Allelopathy, Chocolate weed, Germination, Melochia corchorifolia, Seedling vigour, Sesame, Weed ecolog

Abstract:

Severe infestation of  Melochia corchorifolia L. (Chocolate weed) in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) fields of Onattukara tract of Kerala, India evoked to conduct studies on the allelopathic effect of sesame  plant parts leachate and blended extract on the germination and seedling growth of M. corchorifolia. Results revealed that, the tested concentrations of sesame leachate and blended extract had stimulatory effect on germination and growth of this weed. Further, sesame leachate had higher stimulatory effect than blended extract on germination and seedling growth of M. corchorifolia. The highest concentration of sesame leachate (1:2.5 w/v) recorded the greatest stimulatory effect. The stimulatory effect of sesame leachate on the germination and growth of M. corchorifolia might be the reason for the severe infestation of Melochia corchorifolia in sesame fields.

Email

sheeja.raj@kau.in

Address

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agricultural University, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695522, India

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